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Drs. Wilson and Zavada have collaborated for more than 35 years. Here are their biographies. Dr. John Zavada received a B.A. degree in physics from Catholic University, Washington, D.C., and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, also in physics, from New York University. Dr. Zavada joined the National Science Foundation (NSF), Washington, D.C., in August of 2010 where he served as Program Director in the Division of Electrical, Communications, and Cyber Systems. His program involved research projects in optics and photonic devices. He was Program Manager in the Electronics Division of the Army Research Office, where he managed programs in photonic devices and advanced materials. Dr. Zavada had assignments at the Army’s European Research Office in London, England, where he directed R&D programs in optoelectronics throughout Europe. Dr. Zavada has authored more than 160 refereed publications and has given over 50 conference and seminar presentations. He has held academic appointments at Drexel University, Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. Dr. Robert Wilson is a highly published, retired research scientist with a PhD in physics, a linguist, having studied classical Greek for about 30 years, a philosopher, an outdoorsman, and a world traveler. He was born and raised in rural, agrarian Ohio, and moved to California in 1961. Dr. Wilson is the author or co-author of 338 refereed journal papers, about 150 invited or contributed papers at US and international technical conferences, six book chapters, and 14 books. He is the co-author of books on ion implantation and secondary ion mass spectrometry. He has done research in non-conventional nuclear reactors, deep space propulsion, and the application of ions beams to the modification of the properties of materials for a variety of purposes that include semiconductor devices and circuits.
This work incorporates the results of 41 years experience in ion implantation and 36 years in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). These two technologies became intertwined when the need became apparent for the measurement of depth distributions of elements implanted into many materials under many conditions during and after implantation, for which SIMS was ideally suited, and the realization that while SIMS was a powerful tool for this, SIMS required accurate calibration for the many elements in the many materials, for which ion implantation offered a versatile solution. In 1973, George R. Brewer and RGW published a book [John Wiley] on ion beams and ion implantation, and in 1989, Fred Stevie, Charles Magee, and RGW published a book on SIMS [Wiley Interscience]. The latter book deals primarily with SIMS of semiconductors. This present work adds metals and insulators to this list of substrate materials. The metals studied here are Be, Al, Ti, TiN, TiSi2, Ni, Cu, W, and Au. The Insulators (dielectrics) are SiO2, Si3N4, Al2O3, LiNbO3, UO2. The semiconductors are Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, InSb, HgCdTe. There are four volumes included in this work. This volume contains material for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and applications. Some new concepts of SIMS are introduced, which we call RSFs, stoichiometric SIMS, enhanced SIMS using molecules, and solid-state electron affinities. A comparison of electron affinities derived from this work with previous value of electron affinity from the literature is included. Corrections to previously published values of SIMS RSFs are described. Finally, mass spectra for materials are shown. Volume 2 contains material about ion implantation and applications of ion implantation and secondary ion mass spectrometry, and the beginning of implanted depth distributions measured using SIMS, and volumes 3 and 4 are a continuation of implanted depth distributions measured using SIMS. Ion implantation in volume 2 includes a major discussion of channeled depth distributions and the measurement of electronic stopping powers using the maximum channeling depths. Another significant issue is implanter systems, and another is application of SIMS to commercial device structures. The data included in this work might be used as an aid in future studies of the physics of ion channeling, electronic stopping in solids, and electron affinities measured in solids or solid-state electron affinities, especially for low electron affinity elements. These studies might be suitable for theses or dissertations in graduate schools.